For a seed to be viable, it must be mature enough to have a completely formed genetic blueprint, and it must be strong enough to germinate and pop through its hard casing and sprout its crucial taproot.
Cultivating males is important for breeders trying to cross new strains and genetics, but most people growing for buds will want to remove the males.
Autoflowering strains require some preparation, as they will grow quickly and start to flower whether or not you’re ready for them.
Are you ready to grow?
Because only female cannabis plants produce buds and you want them to focus all their energy on producing buds and not seeds, it’s important to identify and get rid of male weed plants so they don’t pollinate females. If females are pollinated, it will give you buds filled with seeds, making your weed harsh and unpleasant.
Females will have a round structure with long hairs—these hairs will develop into pistils, which will catch pollen in the air.
Once cannabis seeds are mature, the female plant begins to die, and seeds are either dropped to the ground where they grow into new cannabis plants next spring, or the seeds are harvested for processing into seed oil or food products, or stored so they can be sown in the ground later and become the next generation of plants.
For the typical homegrower, it may be easier to obtain cannabis seeds rather than clones. Growing from seed can produce a stronger plant with more solid genetics.
This is not the result of genetic or stress-induced hermaphroditism. They are genuine XX chromosome female bananas. With all the genetic information from the female and no Y chromosome, using rodelized pollen creates female-only seeds, although as with colloidal silver, an occasional male may appear.
The only bummer, unless you grow from clones, is that cannabis is wired to produce about 50% male seeds and 50% females. It is just the nature of the beast.
Just as with standard male to female crossings (which is a heterozygous process), a number of plants will need to be grown and the best selected for mother plants and future breeding. With enough room, hundreds if not thousands of new plants can be grown in order to select the best of the best phenotypes.
HARVESTING POLLEN AND POLLINATION
Plants bred using feminization are homozygous. This can have two effects that can’t be assessed until the seeds are grown. Homozygosity will increase the dominant or recessive traits of the parent in the progeny, so features you don’t want and do want can be amplified. Genetics is a weird, weird thing.
To begin with, select a plant that has the characteristics you want to preserved. Feminizing clones is the usual practice as the growth, flowering, and resin characteristics from the mother are already known. There is no need for any vegetation time once a clone is well-rooted. Simply pot the clone into a small pot, give it a day or two to recover, and begin a 12-12 light cycle right away. A pollen-producing plant only needs to be small as cannabis produces copious amounts of pollen.
Well, that is where the feminizing technique comes into play: two methods of manipulating the cannabis plant to produce only females from seed, every-time. To be truthful, it isn’t every single time. But 99% of the time is a pretty good number, and could be considered entirely male risk-free.
Sinsemilla is an unnatural state for cannabis. Without human intervention, it would be rare to find an unpollinated female in the wild—unless it was sterile. When sinsemilla plants are left to go beyond their desirable maturation stage by a number of weeks, the plant, through whatever amazing processes evolution has bestowed, knows it has not been pollinated. As a last ditch effort at propagation, it will produce male pollen sacs in an effort to self-pollinate.
Imagine you’d be the one creating the next Tangerine G13!
About three hours after fertilization, it is time to deactivate the leftover pollen on the plant. You can do that by simply spraying your plant with water. Be sure to change your clothes and have a shower after this, before you place the fertilized female back in the room.
Crossing Weed Strains
Creating own cannabis varieties is pretty easy too and could potentially be a green goldmine. Even if you don’t create the next Super Silver Haze on your first try, it is still worth trying. Cross-breeding your own weed strains is very educative and results in a huge collection of cannabis genetics. Meaning you might hold seeds to strains that are no longer being produced – to cultivate or cross-breed with.
Hollow stems on male cannabis plants may indicate high THC-production in its offspring
Pollinating your female cannabis plants is as easy as collecting male pollen. Preferably wait until the plant(s) you want to fertilize are three to five weeks into their flowering period. Then take the selected female out of the grow room, again, to avoid uncontrolled pollination of the rest of the plants. Label one or more branches to fertilize, to know which plant was crossed with which and when. And use a clean (paint) brush to apply the pollen on one or more branches for seed production – leaving the rest of the flowers to produce seedless weed: sinsemilla.