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M. Matsumoto and T. Nishimura, “Mersenne Twister: A 623-dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudorandom number generator”, ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation Vol. 8, No. 1, January pp.3–30 1998.

With version 1 (provided for reproducing random sequences from older versions of Python), the algorithm for str and bytes generates a narrower range of seeds.

Bookkeeping functions¶

Complementary-Multiply-with-Carry recipe for a compatible alternative random number generator with a long period and comparatively simple update operations.

If neither weights nor cum_weights are specified, selections are made with equal probability. If a weights sequence is supplied, it must be the same length as the population sequence. It is a TypeError to specify both weights and cum_weights.

random. choices ( population, weights=None, *, cum_weights=None, k=1 ) ¶

However, there are some steps you can take to limit the number of sources of nondeterministic behavior for a specific platform, device, and PyTorch release. First, you can control sources of randomness that can cause multiple executions of your application to behave differently. Second, you can configure PyTorch to avoid using nondeterministic algorithms for some operations, so that multiple calls to those operations, given the same inputs, will produce the same result.

You can use torch.manual_seed() to seed the RNG for all devices (both CPU and CUDA):

Controlling sources of randomness¶

Deterministic operations are often slower than nondeterministic operations, so single-run performance may decrease for your model. However, determinism may save time in development by facilitating experimentation, debugging, and regression testing.

Disabling the benchmarking feature with torch.backends.cudnn.benchmark = False causes cuDNN to deterministically select an algorithm, possibly at the cost of reduced performance.

The cuDNN library, used by CUDA convolution operations, can be a source of nondeterminism across multiple executions of an application. When a cuDNN convolution is called with a new set of size parameters, an optional feature can run multiple convolution algorithms, benchmarking them to find the fastest one. Then, the fastest algorithm will be used consistently during the rest of the process for the corresponding set of size parameters. Due to benchmarking noise and different hardware, the benchmark may select different algorithms on subsequent runs, even on the same machine.

What Series A allows a company to do is grow. Some tangible examples of this growth are:

Friends and family are loaning—not gifting—money most of the time; they will expect to be paid back.

Participants of a crowdfunding session expect a product or a service that they can later use, and your reputation can be jeopardized if you cannot deliver what they want. Recently, equity crowdfunding has become en vogue, and your company might need to give away securities in exchange for capital.


You likely noticed that a company raising Seed Capital is going to give away equity between 10-25%. Occasionally, investors will ask for preferred stock with anti-dilution provisions because of the inherent risks of investing in an early-stage startup.

The fact of the matter is that if you want to start a business, you will most likely need to obtain external capital. The purpose of this blog is to explain the basics of the first two rounds of startup funding and how it can help your startup.

Investors in companies at the Series A stage are primarily Venture Capitalists and Angel Investors. The influence of Angel Investors at this stage is reduced drastically from Seed Funding.

The valuation of a company that completes a round of Seed Funding is roughly $500,000-$3,000,000. The average amount raised is difficult to gauge because of the variation in fundraising, industries, and other disparate factors, so valuation is more useful in identifying businesses in this stage.